Wind Energy Systems Control Engineering Design

  • Price UKP: 71.99
  • Author: Mario Garcia Sanz , Constantine . H. Houpis
  • Publisher: CRC
  • ISBN-13: 9781439821794
  • Binding: Hard Binding
  • Pages: 631
  • Year of Pub / Reprint Year: 2012



Describes the design and field experimentation of real-world multi-megawatt wind turbines and their control systems
Includes real-world industrial wind energy projects and field tests where the authors have played a central role
Present the main concepts of the QFT robust control engineering technique in such a manner that students and practicing engineers can readily grasp the fundamentals and appreciate its transparency in bridging the gap between theory and the real world
Includes the most advanced interactive object-oriented CAD tool for QFT controller design with MATLAB
Includes a very complete reference section arranged by subject, which allows the student a quick start in each area of interest
Addresses state-of-the-art of QFT methods to design control systems for multi-input multi-output applications
Introduces new and easy-to-use techniques to design controllers for distributed parameter systems
Presents a hybrid methodology to design non-linear robust control systems able to go beyond the classical linear limitations

Presenting the latest developments in the field, Wind Energy Systems: Control Engineering Design offers a novel take on advanced control engineering design techniques for wind turbine applications. The book introduces concurrent quantitative engineering techniques for the design of highly efficient and reliable controllers, which can be used to solve the most critical problems of multi-megawatt wind energy systems.

This book is based on the authors’ experience during the last two decades designing commercial multi-megawatt wind turbines and control systems for industry leaders, including NASA and the European Space Agency. This work is their response to the urgent need for a truly reliable concurrent engineering methodology for the design of advanced control systems. Outlining a roadmap for such a coordinated architecture, the authors consider the links between all aspects of a multi-megawatt wind energy project, in which the wind turbine and the control system must be cooperatively designed to achieve an optimized, reliable, and successful system.

Look inside for links to a free download of QFTCT—a new interactive CAD tool for QFT controller design with MATLAB® that the authors developed with the European Space Agency.

The textbook’s big-picture insights can help students and practicing engineers control and optimize a wind energy system, in which large, flexible, aerodynamic structures are connected to a demanding variable electrical grid and work automatically under very turbulent and unpredictable environmental conditions. The book covers topics including robust QFT control, aerodynamics, mechanical and electrical dynamic modeling, economics, reliability, and efficiency. It also addresses standards, certification, implementation, grid integration, and power quality, as well as environmental and maintenance issues.

To reinforce understanding, the authors present real examples of experimentation with commercial multi-megawatt direct-drive wind turbines, as well as on-shore, offshore, floating, and airborne wind turbine applications. They also offer a unique in-depth exploration of the quantitative feedback theory (QFT)—a proven, successful robust control technique for real-world applications—as well as advanced switching control techniques that help engineers exceed classical linear limitations.
Table of Contents

Broad Context and Motivation
Concurrent Engineering: A Road Map for Energy
Quantitative Robust Control
Novel CAD Toolbox for QFT Controller Design
Part I: Advanced Robust Control Techniques: QFT and Nonlinear Switching
Introduction to QFT
Quantitative Feedback Theory
Why Feedback?
QFT Overview
Insight into the QFT Technique
Benefits of QFT
MISO Analog QFT Control System
QFT Method (Single-Loop MISO System)
Design Procedure Outline
Minimum-Phase System Performance Specifications
J LTI Plant Models
Plant Templates of Pι(s), P( j_i )
Nominal Plant
U-Contour (Stability Bound)
Tracking Bounds BR(jω) on the NC
Disturbance Bounds BD(jωi)
Composite Boundary Bo(jωi)
Shaping of Lo(jω)
Guidelines for Shaping Lo(jω)
Design of the Prefilter F(s)
Basic Design Procedure for a MISO System
Design Example 1
Design Example 2
Template Generation for Unstable Plants

Discrete Quantitative Feedback Technique
Bilinear Transformations
Non-Minimum-Phase Analog Plant
Discrete MISO Model with Plant Uncertainty
QFT w-Domain DIG Design

Basic Design Procedure for a MISO S-D Control System
QFT Technique Applied to the PCT System
Applicability of Design Technique to Other Plants
Designing L(w) Directly
Diagonal MIMO QFT
Examples and Motivation
MIMO Systems—Characteristics and Overview
MIMO QFT Control—Overview
Nonsequential Diagonal MIMO QFT (Method 1)
Sequential Diagonal MIMO QFT (Method 2)
Basically Noninteracting Loops
MIMO QFT with External (Input) Disturbances
Non-Diagonal MIMO QFT
Non-Diagonal MIMO QFT: A Coupling Minimization Technique (Method 3)
Coupling Elements
Optimum Non-Diagonal Compensator
Coupling Effects
Quality Function of the Designed Compensator
Design Methodology
Some Practical Issues
Non-Diagonal MIMO QFT: A Generalized Technique (Method 4)
Translating Matrix Performance Specifications
Comparison of Methods 3 and 4
QFT for Distributed Parameter Systems
Generalized DPS Control System Structure
Extension of Quantitative Feedback Theory to DPS
Modeling Approaches for PDE
Nonlinear Switching Control Techniques
System Stability under Switching
Part II: Wind Turbine Control
Introduction to Wind Energy Systems
Birth of Modern Wind Turbines
Market Sizes and Investments
Future Challenges and Opportunities
Standards and Certification for Wind Turbines
Standards: Definition and Strategic Value
Standards: Structure and Development
Certification of Wind Turbines
General Concepts
Wind Turbine Control Objectives and Strategies
Control Objectives
Control Strategies
Control System
Aerodynamics and Mechanical Modeling of Wind Turbines
Aerodynamic Models
Mechanical Models
Electrical Modeling of Wind Turbines
Electrical Models
Power Electronic Converters
Power Quality Characteristics
Wind Farms Integration in the Power System
Advanced Pitch Control System Design
QFT Robust Control Design
Nonlinear Switching Multi-Objective Design
Nonlinear Robust Control Design for Large Parameter Variation
Experimental Results with the Direct-Drive Wind Turbine TWT-1.65
Variable-Speed Direct-Drive Torres Wind Turbine Family
Torres Wind Turbine Pitch and Rotor Speed Control Results
Wind Farm Grid Integration: Torres Wind Turbine Results
Voltage Dip Solutions: Torres Wind Turbine Results
Blades Manufacturing: MIMO QFT Control for Industrial Furnaces
Composite Materials
Industrial Furnace Description
Furnace Model
Estimation of Furnace Parameters
MIMO QFT Controller Design
Experimental Results
Smart Wind Turbine Blades
General Description
Some History
Offshore Wind Energy: Overview
History of Offshore Platforms
Offshore Wind Farms
Offshore Floating Wind Turbines
Airborne Wind Energy Systems
Overview of Airborne Wind Energy Systems
Eagle System

Appendix A: Templates Generation
Appendix B: Inequality Bound Expressions
Appendix C: Analytical QFT Bounds
Appendix D: Essentials for Loop Shaping
Appendix E: Fragility Analysis with QFT
Appendix F: QFT Control Toolbox: User’s Guide
Appendix G: Controller Design Examples
Appendix H: Conversion of Units
Answers to Selected Problems
Dr. Mario García-Sanz is Professor at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), Ohio, the Milton and Tamar Maltz Professor in Energy Innovation, and Director of the Wind Energy and Control Systems Center at CWRU. As Senior Advisor for the President of the M.Torres Group and Professor at the Public University of Navarra, he played a central role in the design and field experimentation of advanced multi-megawatt wind turbines for industry. Dr. García-Sanz held visiting professorships at the Control Systems Centre, UMIST (UK, 1995); at Oxford University (UK, 1996); at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory NASA-JPL (California, 2004); and at the European Space Agency ESA-ESTEC (The Netherlands, 2008).

He holds 20 industrial patents, has done more than 40 large research projects for industry and space agencies, and is author or coauthor of more than 150 research papers, including the books “Quantitative Feedback Theory: Theory and Applications”, Taylor & Francis (2006), and “Wind Energy Systems: Control Engineering Design”, Taylor & Francis (2012).

Dr. García-Sanz is Subject Editor of the International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, a member of IFAC and IEEE Technical Committees, and served as NATO/RTO Lecture Series Director and as Guest Editor of international journals (Robust control, QFT control, Wind turbine control, Spacecraft control). He was awarded the IEE Heaviside Prize (UK) in 1995 and the BBVA research award (Spain) in 2001. Professor García-Sanz’s main research interest focuses on bridging the gap between advanced control theory and applications, with special emphasis in Energy Innovation, Wind Energy, Space, Environmental and Industrial Applications.