System Engineering Analysis, Design, and Development: Concepts, Principles, and Practices, 2ed

  • Author: Charles S. Wasson
  • Binding: Hard Binding
  • ISBN-13: 9781118442265
  • Price in FC: USD 134.95
  • Pages: 882
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Year of Pub / Reprint Year: 2015

Description

Praise for the first edition:

This excellent text will be useful to every system engineer (SE) regardless of the domain. It covers ALL relevant SE material and does so in a very clear, methodical fashion. The breadth and depth of the author’s presentation of SE principles and practices is outstanding.” –Philip Allen

This textbook presents a comprehensive, step-by-step guide to System Engineering analysis, design, and development via an integrated set of concepts, principles, practices, and methodologies. The methods presented in this text apply to any type of human system — small, medium, and large organizational systems and system development projects delivering engineered systems or services across multiple business sectors such as medical, transportation, financial, educational, governmental, aerospace and defense, utilities, political, and charity, among others.

Provides a common focal point for “bridging the gap” between and unifying System Users, System Acquirers, multi-discipline System Engineering, and Project, Functional, and Executive Management education, knowledge, and decision-making for developing systems, products, or services
Each chapter provides definitions of key terms, guiding principles, examples, author’s notes, real-world examples, and exercises, which highlight and reinforce key SE&D concepts and practices
Addresses concepts employed in Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE), Model-Driven Design (MDD), Unified Modeling Language (UML) / Systems Modeling Language (SysML), and Agile/Spiral/V-Model Development such as user needs, stories, and use cases analysis; specification development; system architecture development; User-Centric System Design (UCSD); interface definition & control; system integration & test; and Verification & Validation (V&V)
Highlights/introduces a new 21st Century Systems Engineering & Development (SE&D) paradigm that is easy to understand and implement.
Provides practices that are critical staging points for technical decision making such as Technical Strategy Development; Life Cycle requirements; Phases, Modes, & States; SE Process; Requirements Derivation; System Architecture Development, User-Centric System Design (UCSD); Engineering Standards, Coordinate Systems, and Conventions; et al.
Thoroughly illustrated, with end-of-chapter exercises and numerous case studies and examples, Systems Engineering Analysis, Design, and Development, Second Edition is a primary textbook for multi-discipline, engineering, system analysis, and project management undergraduate/graduate level students and a valuable reference for professionals.

 

Table of Contents

FOREWORD xv
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xvii
ABOUT THE COMPANION WEBSITE xxi
INTRODUCTION—HOW TO USE THIS TEXT xxiii
1 Systems, Engineering, and Systems Engineering 1
1.1 Definitions of Key Terms 2
1.2 Approach to this Chapter 2
1.3 What is a System? 3
1.4 Learning to Recognize Types of Systems 7
1.5 What is SE? 8
1.6 System Versus Systems Engineering 12
1.7 SE: Historical Notes 13
1.8 Systems Thinking and SE 13
1.9 Chapter Summary 15
1.10 Chapter Exercises 15
1.11 References 16
2 The Evolving State of SE Practice-Challenges and Opportunities 17
2.1 Definitions of Key Terms 19
2.2 Approach to this Chapter 20
2.3 The State of SE and System Development Performance 20
2.4 Understanding the Problem: Root Cause Analysis 24
2.5 Industry, Government, Academic, Professional, and Standards Organizations Solutions 27
2.6 Defining the Problem 32
2.7 Engineering Education Challenges and Opportunities 42
2.8 Chapter Summary 43
2.9 Chapter Exercises 46
2.10 References 46
PART I SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS CONCEPTS 49
3 System Attributes, Properties, and Characteristics 51
3.1 Definition of Key Terms 51
3.2 Analytical Representation of a System 53
3.3 System Stakeholders: User and End User Roles 55
3.4 System Attributes 56
3.5 System Properties 56
3.6 System Characteristics 60
3.7 The System’s State of Equilibrium and the Balance of Power 61
3.8 System/Product Life Cycle Concepts 64
3.9 System Acceptability: Challenges for Achieving Success 71
3.10 Chapter Summary 74
3.11 Chapter Exercises 74
3.12 References 75
4 User Enterprise Roles, Missions, and System Applications 76
4.1 Definitions of Key Terms 76
4.2 Approach to this Chapter 77
4.3 User Roles and Missions 78
4.4 Understanding and Defining User Missions 83
4.5 Understanding the User’s Problem, Opportunity, and Solution Spaces 88
4.6 Chapter Summary, 97
4.7 Chapter Exercises, 97
4.8 References, 98
5 User Needs, Mission Analysis, Use Cases, and Scenarios 99
5.1 Definitions of Key Terms 100
5.2 Approach to this Chapter 101
5.3 Commercial/Consumer Product Versus Contract System Development 101
5.4 User Operational Needs Identification 103
5.5 Mission Analysis 107
5.6 Mission Operational Effectiveness 114
5.7 Defining Mission and System UCs and Scenarios 117
5.8 Chapter Summary 127
5.9 Chapter Exercises 127
5.10 References 128
6 System Concepts Formulation and Development 129
6.1 Definitions of Key Terms 129
6.2 Conceptualization of System Operations 131
6.3 The System Operations Model 131
6.4 Formulating and Developing the System Concepts 138
6.5 Chapter Summary 144
6.6 Chapter Exercises 145
6.7 References 145
7 System Command and Control (C2) – Phases, Modes, and States of Operation 147
7.1 Definitions of Key Terms 148
7.2 Approach to this Chapter 149
7.3 System Phases of Operation 150
7.4 Introduction to System Modes and States 151
7.5 Enterprise Perspective—Engineered System States 154
7.6 Engineering Perspective—Modes and States 157
7.7 Applying Phases, Modes, and States of Operation 168
7.8 Modes and States Constraints 169
7.9 Chapter Summary 172
7.10 Chapter Exercises 172
7.11 References 173
8 System Levels of Abstraction, Semantics, and Elements 174
8.1 Definitions of Key Terms 174
8.2 Establishing and Bounding the System’s Context 175
8.3 System Levels of Abstraction and Semantics 176
8.4 System Decomposition Versus Integration Entity Relationships 181
8.5 Logical–Physical Entity Relationship (ER) Concepts 183
8.6 Architectural System Element Concepts 186
8.7 Chapter Summary 196
8.8 Chapter Exercises 196
8.9 References 197
9 Architectural Frameworks of the SOI and Its Operating Environment 198
9.1 Definitions of Key Terms 198
9.2 Approach to this Chapter 199
9.3 Introduction to the SOI Architecture 199
9.4 Understanding the OE Architecture 201
9.5 Other Architectural Frameworks 209
9.6 Understanding The System Threat Environment 209
9.7 SOI Interfaces 211
9.8 Chapter Summary 218
9.9 Chapter Exercises 218
9.10 References 218
10 Modeling Mission System and Enabling System Operations 219
10.1 Definitions of Key Terms 219
10.2 Approach to this Chapter 219
10.3 The System Behavioral Response Model 220
10.4 System Command & Control (C2) Interaction Constructs 221
10.5 Modeling System Control Flow and Data Flow Operations 225
10.6 Modeling Mission System and Enabling System Operations 230
10.7 Modeling an Operational Capability 235
10.8 Nested Operational Cycles 241
10.9 Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) 241
10.10 Chapter Summary 243
10.11 Chapter Exercises 243
10.12 References 243
11 Analytical Problem-Solving and Solution Development Synthesis 245
11.1 Definitions of Key Terms 245
11.2 Part I: System Engineering and Analysis Concepts
Synthesis 245
11.3 Shifting to a New Systems Engineering Paradigm 246
11.4 The Four Domain Solutions Methodology 248
11.5 Chapter Summary 251
11.6 References 254
PART II SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES 255
12 Introduction to System Development Strategies 257
12.1 Definitions of Key Terms 258
12.2 Approach to this Chapter 259
12.3 System Development Workflow Strategy 260
12.4 Multi-Level Systems Design and Development Strategy 262
12.5 Chapter Summary 268
12.6 Chapter Exercises 268
12.7 References 269
13 System Verification and Validation (V&V) Strategy 270
13.1 Definitions of Key Terms 270
13.2 Approach to this Chapter 272
13.3 System V&V Concepts Overview 275
13.4 System Verification Practices 278
13.5 System Validation Practices 283
13.6 Applying V&V to the System Development Workflow Processes 285
13.7 Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) 290
13.8 Chapter Summary 291
13.9 Chapter Exercises 292
13.10 References 292
14 The Wasson Systems Engineering Process 293
14.1 Definitions of Key Terms 293
14.2 Approach to this Chapter 294
14.3 Evolution of SE Processes 294
14.4 The Wasson SE Process Model 296
14.5 Wasson SE Process Model Characteristics 306
14.6 Application of the Wasson SE Process Model 310
14.7 The Strength of the Wasson SE Process Model 311
14.8 Chapter Summary 311
14.9 Chapter Exercises 312
14.10 References 312
15 System Development Process Models 313
15.1 Definitions of Key Terms 314
15.2 Introduction to the System Development Models 315
15.3 Waterfall Development Strategy and Model 316
15.4 “V” System Development Strategy and Model 318
15.5 Spiral Development Strategy and Model 322
15.6 Iterative and Incremental Development Model 324
15.7 Evolutionary Development Strategy and Model 325
15.8 Agile Development Strategy and Model 326
15.9 Selection of System Versus Component Development Models 341
15.10 Chapter Summary 342
15.11 Chapter Exercises 342
15.12 References 342
16 System Configuration Identification and Component Selection Strategy 344
16.1 Definitions of Key Terms 345
16.2 Items: Building Blocks of Systems 347
16.3 Understanding Configuration Identification Semantics 347
16.4 Configuration Item (CI) Implementation 352
16.5 Developmental Configuration Baselines 355
16.6 Component Selection and Development 358
16.7 Vendor Product Semantics 359
16.8 Component Selection Methodology 360
16.9 Driving Issues that Influence COTS/NDI Selection 361
16.10 Chapter Summary 363
16.11 Chapter Exercises 363
16.12 References 364
17 System Documentation Strategy 365
17.1 Definitions of Key Terms 366
17.2 Quality System and Engineering Data Records 366
17.3 System Design and Development Data 367
17.4 Data Accession List (DAL) and Data Criteria List (DCL) 368
17.5 SE and Development Documentation Sequencing 369
17.6 Documentation Levels of Formality 370
17.7 Export Control of Sensitive Data and Technology 371
17.8 System Documentation Issues 373
17.9 Chapter Summary 374
17.10 Chapter Exercises 374
17.11 References 375
18 Technical Reviews Strategy 376
18.1 Definitions of Key Terms 376
18.2 Approach to this Chapter 378
18.3 Technical Reviews Overview 378
18.4 Conduct of Technical Reviews 380
18.5 Contract Review Requirements 381
18.6 In-Process Reviews (IPRs) 383
18.7 Contract Technical Reviews 384
18.8 Chapter Summary 395
18.9 Chapter Exercises 395
18.10 References 396
19 System Specification Concepts 397
19.1 Definitions of Key Terms 397
19.2 What is a Specification? 398
19.3 Attributes of a Well-Defined Specification 400
19.4 Types of Specifications 403
19.5 Key Elements of a Specification 405
19.6 Specification Requirements 408
19.7 Chapter Summary 413
19.8 Chapter Exercises 413
19.9 References 414
20 Specification Development Approaches 415
20.1 Definitions of Key Terms 415
20.2 Approach to this Chapter 416
20.3 Introduction to Specification Development 416
20.4 Specification Development Approaches 420
20.5 Special Topics 426
20.6 Specification Reviews 426
20.7 Chapter Summary 428
20.8 Chapter Exercises 428
20.9 Reference 428
21 Requirements Derivation, Allocation, Flow Down, and Traceability 429
21.1 Definitions of Key Terms 429
21.2 Approach to this Chapter 430
21.3 Introduction to Requirements Derivation, Allocation Flowdown, & Traceability 430
21.4 Requirements Derivation Methods 436
21.5 Requirements Derivation and Allocation Across Entity Boundaries 436
21.6 Requirements Allocation 438
21.7 Requirements Traceability 439
21.8 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) 442
21.9 Chapter Summary 445
21.10 Chapter Exercises 445
21.11 References 445
22 Requirements Statement Development 446
22.1 Definition of Key Terms 446
22.2 Approach to this Chapter 446
22.3 Introduction to Requirements Statement Development 447
22.4 Preparing the Requirement Statement 449
22.5 Selection of Requirement Verification Methods 453
22.6 Requirements Traceability and Verification Tools 456
22.7 Requirements Statement Development Guidelines 459
22.8 When Does a Requirement Become “Official”? 462
22.9 Chapter Summary 462
22.10 Chapter Exercises 464
22.11 References 464
23 Specification Analysis 465
23.1 Definition of Key Terms 465
23.2 Analyzing Existing Specifications 466
23.3 Specification Assessment Checklist 467
23.4 Specification Analysis Methods 471
23.5 Specification Deficiencies Checklist 472
23.6 Resolution of Specification COI/CTI Issues 476
23.7 Requirements Compliance 477
23.8 Chapter Summary 478
23.9 Chapter Exercises 478
23.10 References 479
24 User-Centered System Design (UCSD) 480
24.1 Definitions of Key Terms 481
24.2 Approach to this Chapter 483
24.3 Introduction to UCSD 484
24.4 Understanding Human Factors (HF) and Ergonomics 493
24.5 Situational Assessment: Areas of Concern 509
24.6 Complex System Development 512
24.7 SE HF and Ergonomics Actions 512
24.8 Chapter Summary 514
24.9 Chapter Exercises 515
24.10 References 515
25 Engineering Standards of Units, Coordinate Systems, and Conventions 518
25.1 Definitions of Key Terms 518
25.2 Approach to this Chapter 519
25.3 Engineering Standards 520
25.4 Standards for Units, Weights, and Measures 520
25.5 Coordinate Reference Systems 522
25.6 Defining a System’s Free Body Dynamics 534
25.7 Applying Engineering Standards and Conventions 538
25.8 Engineering Standards and Conventions Lessons Learned 538
25.9 Chapter Summary 540
25.10 Chapter Exercises 540
25.11 References 541
26 System and Entity Architecture Development 542
26.1 Definitions of Key Terms 542
26.2 Approach to this Chapter 543
26.3 Introduction to System Architecture Development 544
26.4 Development of System Architectures 554
26.5 Advanced System Architecture Topics 559
26.6 Chapter Summary 572
26.7 Chapter Exercises 573
26.8 References 574
27 System Interface Definition, Analysis, Design, and Control 575
27.1 Definitions of Key Terms 576
27.2 Approach to this Chapter 576
27.3 Interface Ownership, Work Products, and Control Concepts 577
27.4 Interface Definition Methodology 583
27.5 Interface Design—Advanced Topics 588
27.6 Interface Definition and Control Challenges and Solutions 592
27.7 Chapter Summary 597
27.8 Chapter Exercises 598
27.9 References 598
28 System Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) 599
28.1 Definitions of Key Terms 599
28.2 SITE Fundamentals 601
28.3 Key Elements of Site 604
28.4 Planning for Site 610
28.5 Establishing the Test Organization 612
28.6 Developing Test Cases (TCs) and Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs) 613
28.7 Performing SITE Tasks 614
28.8 Common Integration and Test Challenges and Issues 617
28.9 Chapter Summary 621
28.10 Chapter Exercises 621
28.11 References 622
29 System Deployment, OM&S, Retirement, and Disposal 623
29.1 Definitions of Key Terms 624
29.2 Approach to this Chapter 625
29.3 System Deployment Operations 626
29.4 System Operation, Maintenance, & Sustainment (OM&S) 638
29.5 System Retirement (Phase-Out) Operations 645
29.6 System Disposal Operations 646
29.7 Chapter Summary 646
29.8 Chapter Exercises 646
29.9 References 647
PART III ANALYTICAL DECISION SUPPORT PRACTICES 649
30 Introduction to Analytical Decision Support 651
30.1 Definitions of Key Terms 651
30.2 What is Analytical Decision Support? 652
30.3 Attributes of Technical Decisions 652
30.4 Types of Engineering Analyses 654
30.5 System Performance Analysis and Evaluation 654
30.6 Statistical Influences on System Design 659
30.7 Chapter Summary 664
30.8 General Exercises 665
30.9 References 665
31 System Performance Analysis, Budgets, and Safety Margins 666
31.1 Definitions of Key Terms 667
31.2 Performance “Design-To” Budgets and Safety Margins 667
31.3 Analyzing System Performance 672
31.4 Real-Time Control and Frame-Based Systems 679
31.5 System Performance Optimization 679
31.6 System Analysis Reporting 680
31.7 Chapter Summary 680
31.8 Chapter Exercises 680
31.9 References 681
32 Trade Study Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) 682
32.1 Definitions of Key Terms 682
32.2 Introduction to Multivariate Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) 683
32.3 Chartering a Trade Study 688
32.4 Establishing the Trade Study Methodology 689
32.5 Trade Study Quantitative Approaches 690
32.6 Trade Study Utility or Scoring Functions 695
32.7 Sensitivity Analysis 696
32.8 Trade Study Reports (TSRs) 696
32.9 Trade Study Decision 697
32.10 Trade Study Risk Areas 699
32.11 Trade Study Lessons Learned 701
32.12 Chapter Summary 701
32.13 Chapter Exercises 701
32.14 References 701
33 System Modeling and Simulation (M&S) 703
33.1 Definitions of Key Terms 704
33.2 Technical Decision-Making Aids 705
33.3 Simulation-Based Models 705
33.4 Application Examples of M&S 709
33.5 M&S Challenges and Issues 717
33.6 Chapter Summary 719
33.7 Chapter Exercises 719
33.8 References 720
34 System Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability (RMA) 721
34.1 Definitions of Key Terms 722
34.2 Approach to this Chapter 723
34.3 System Reliability 725
34.4 Understanding System Maintainability 768
34.5 System Availability 779
34.6 Optimizing RMA Trade-Offs 781
34.7 Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) 783
34.8 System RMA Challenges 788
34.9 Chapter Summary 789
34.10 Chapter Exercises 789
34.11 References 790
EPILOG 792
Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations 795
Appendix B INCOSE Handbook Traceability 801
Appendix C System Modeling Language (SysML™) Constructs 811
INDEX 821